Full Versus Partial Knee Replacement Surgery
What is the difference?
Knee replacement surgery is the procedure where the damaged or the eroded portion of the joint surface is removed and the surface is resurfaced with the help of metallic and ceramic components. It is important to know that the knee joint is made up of 3 compartments: medial (inner),
lateral (outer), and patella-femoral compartment (underneath the knee cap). Full (total) knee replacement surgery resurfaces all three compartments of the knee whereas partial knee replacement surgery will
resurface only the affected compartment (ex: medial compartment – which is more commonly damaged) of the knee joint.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Partial knee replacement?
Replacing only one compartment of the knee (inner compartment) preserves much of the normal tissues making this surgery less extensive than the total knee replacement. As the Anterior and Posterior cruciate
ligaments are preserved, the surgery has less risk for soft tissue injury and bleeding. The need for blood transfusion is less. Rehabilitation after the surgery is typically easier and faster. These patients are still candidates for Total Knee Replacement if needed in the future. Success rate with this procedure is excellent.
As the surgery re-establishes only the inner compartment of the knee, the arthritic process may continue to damage the outer compartment of the knee. The wear and tear of the implant can also be greater. Knee pain may return in these patients. Partial knee replacement is not indicated for rheumatoid arthritis patients as this affects all three compartments.
Is Total knee replacement surgery better than Partial knee replacement surgery?
Total knee replacement surgery resurfaces all three compartments of the knee, removing the osteoarthritis. Many patients regain their ability to carry out activities of daily living and even low-intensity athletic activities. Since all three compartments are replaced the knee will have a lesser amount of wear and tear and the implants are found to last longer. In the United States, most of knee replacement surgery performed is total knee replacement (90%).
Total knee replacement surgery is a longer procedure than partial knee replacement surgery even in the hands of most experienced surgeons. Longer intra-operative time may mean increased bleeding in the knee. The wounds and surgery is more extensive and may require a longer rehabilitation time. The cost also increases with the need for implants for all three compartments of the knee.
Both procedures have benefits and risks to equally consider. The success rate of the surgery highly depends upon the proper selection of the patient. Drs. Scott and Kozinn established criteria for selecting a patient for partial knee replacement surgery. Younger patients (60 years of age at the time of surgery), less deformed knee, adequate knee range of motion, minimal pain at rest, not obese, and not extremely physically active can undergo partial knee replacement surgery. Older patients, more extensive osteoarthritis, knee damage due to rheumatoid arthritis are suitable for total knee replacement surgery.
Now that you know the difference between Full and Partial knee replacement surgery. If you need Knee Replacement Surgery, Straith Hospital can help. Our team of skilled physicians, nurses, therapists and more work hard to improve your strength so you can get back home safely. To learn more, give us a call at (248) 357-3360 or click here to view frequently asked questions. Schedule An Appointment!
THIS ARTICLE IS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY, IT DOES NOT CREATE A PHYSICIAN-PATIENT OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIP, AND IT SHOULD NOT BE INTERPRETED OR RELIED UPON AS MEDICAL ADVICE OR OPINION. EACH HEALTH CONDITION IS UNIQUE AND SHOULD BE EVALUATED,
DIAGNOSED AND/OR TREATED WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF COMPETENT PROFESSIONALS.